half way through the exception refactoring
[m6w6/ext-pq] / src / php_pq.c
index 64d59af..01886ce 100644 (file)
 
 #include <php.h>
 #include <Zend/zend_interfaces.h>
+#include <Zend/zend_exceptions.h>
 #include <ext/standard/info.h>
 #include <ext/standard/php_smart_str.h>
 #include <ext/spl/spl_array.h>
+#include <ext/spl/spl_exceptions.h>
 #include <ext/raphf/php_raphf.h>
 
 #include <libpq-events.h>
@@ -86,6 +88,36 @@ static zend_class_entry *php_pqevent_class_entry;
 static zend_class_entry *php_pqlob_class_entry;
 static zend_class_entry *php_pqcopy_class_entry;
 
+typedef enum php_pqexc_type {
+       EX_DEFAULT,
+       EX_INVALID_ARGUMENT,
+       EX_RUNTIME,
+       EX_CONNECTION_FAILED,
+       EX_BAD_METHODCALL,
+} php_pqexc_type_t;
+
+static zend_class_entry *php_pqexc_interface_class_entry;
+static zend_class_entry *php_pqexc_default_class_entry;
+static zend_class_entry *php_pqexc_invalid_argument_class_entry;
+static zend_class_entry *php_pqexc_runtime_class_entry;
+static zend_class_entry *php_pqexc_bad_methodcall_class_entry;
+
+static zend_class_entry *exce(php_pqexc_type_t type)
+{
+       switch (type) {
+       case EX_DEFAULT:
+       default:
+               return php_pqexc_default_class_entry;
+       case EX_INVALID_ARGUMENT:
+               return php_pqexc_invalid_argument_class_entry;
+       case EX_RUNTIME:
+       case EX_CONNECTION_FAILED:
+               return php_pqexc_runtime_class_entry;
+       case EX_BAD_METHODCALL:
+               return php_pqexc_bad_methodcall_class_entry;
+       }
+}
+
 static zend_object_handlers php_pqconn_object_handlers;
 static zend_object_handlers php_pqtypes_object_handlers;
 static zend_object_handlers php_pqres_object_handlers;
@@ -197,6 +229,7 @@ typedef struct php_pqtxn {
        php_pqconn_object_t *conn;
        php_pqtxn_isolation_t isolation;
        unsigned savepoint;
+       unsigned open:1;
        unsigned readonly:1;
        unsigned deferrable:1;
 } php_pqtxn_t;
@@ -458,11 +491,11 @@ static int php_pqres_count_elements(zval *object, long *count TSRMLS_DC)
 {
        php_pqres_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(object TSRMLS_CC);
 
-       if (obj->intern) {
+       if (!obj->intern) {
+               return FAILURE;
+       } else {
                *count = (long) PQntuples(obj->intern->res);
                return SUCCESS;
-       } else {
-               return FAILURE;
        }
 }
 
@@ -472,7 +505,7 @@ static STATUS php_pqres_success(PGresult *res TSRMLS_DC)
        case PGRES_BAD_RESPONSE:
        case PGRES_NONFATAL_ERROR:
        case PGRES_FATAL_ERROR:
-               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "%s", PHP_PQresultErrorMessage(res));
+               zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "%s", PHP_PQresultErrorMessage(res));
                return FAILURE;
        default:
                return SUCCESS;
@@ -592,6 +625,25 @@ static void php_pqstm_object_free(void *o TSRMLS_DC)
        php_pqstm_object_t *obj = o;
 
        if (obj->intern) {
+               char *quoted_name = PQescapeIdentifier(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, obj->intern->name, strlen(obj->intern->name));
+
+               php_pq_callback_dtor(&obj->intern->conn->intern->onevent);
+
+               if (quoted_name) {
+                       PGresult *res;
+                       smart_str cmd = {0};
+
+                       smart_str_appends(&cmd, "DEALLOCATE ");
+                       smart_str_appends(&cmd, quoted_name);
+                       smart_str_0(&cmd);
+                       PQfreemem(quoted_name);
+
+                       if ((res = PQexec(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, cmd.c))) {
+                               PHP_PQclear(res);
+                       }
+                       smart_str_free(&cmd);
+               }
+
                php_pq_object_delref(obj->intern->conn TSRMLS_CC);
                efree(obj->intern->name);
                zend_hash_destroy(&obj->intern->bound);
@@ -607,6 +659,13 @@ static void php_pqtxn_object_free(void *o TSRMLS_DC)
        php_pqtxn_object_t *obj = o;
 
        if (obj->intern) {
+               if (obj->intern->open) {
+                       PGresult *res = PQexec(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, "ROLLBACK");
+
+                       if (res) {
+                               PHP_PQclear(res);
+                       }
+               }
                php_pq_object_delref(obj->intern->conn TSRMLS_CC);
                efree(obj->intern);
                obj->intern = NULL;
@@ -1274,6 +1333,13 @@ static void php_pqres_object_read_status(zval *object, void *o, zval *return_val
        RETVAL_LONG(PQresultStatus(obj->intern->res));
 }
 
+static void php_pqres_object_read_status_message(zval *object, void *o, zval *return_value TSRMLS_DC)
+{
+       php_pqres_object_t *obj = o;
+
+       RETVAL_STRING(PQresStatus(PQresultStatus(obj->intern->res))+sizeof("PGRES"), 1);
+}
+
 static void php_pqres_object_read_error_message(zval *object, void *o, zval *return_value TSRMLS_DC)
 {
        php_pqres_object_t *obj = o;
@@ -1762,7 +1828,7 @@ static void php_pqconn_resource_factory_dtor(void *opaque, void *handle TSRMLS_D
 {
        php_pqconn_event_data_t *evdata = PQinstanceData(handle, php_pqconn_event);
 
-       /* we don't care for anthing, except free'ing evdata */
+       /* we don't care for anything, except free'ing evdata */
        if (evdata) {
                PQsetInstanceData(handle, php_pqconn_event, NULL);
                memset(evdata, 0, sizeof(*evdata));
@@ -1780,6 +1846,7 @@ static php_resource_factory_ops_t php_pqconn_resource_factory_ops = {
 
 static void php_pqconn_wakeup(php_persistent_handle_factory_t *f, void **handle TSRMLS_DC)
 {
+       // FIXME: ping server
 }
 
 static int apply_unlisten(void *p TSRMLS_DC, int argc, va_list argv, zend_hash_key *key)
@@ -1862,39 +1929,47 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqconn, __construct) {
        char *dsn_str = "";
        int dsn_len = 0;
        long flags = 0;
+       STATUS rv;
 
-       zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, NULL, &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "|sl", &dsn_str, &dsn_len, &flags)) {
+       zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, exce(EX_INVALID_ARGUMENT), &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "|sl", &dsn_str, &dsn_len, &flags);
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
                php_pqconn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
-               php_pqconn_event_data_t *evdata =  php_pqconn_event_data_init(obj TSRMLS_CC);
-               php_pqconn_resource_factory_data_t rfdata = {dsn_str, flags};
 
-               obj->intern = ecalloc(1, sizeof(*obj->intern));
+               if (obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_BAD_METHODCALL), EX_BAD_METHODCALL TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Connection already initialized");
+               } else {
+                       php_pqconn_event_data_t *evdata =  php_pqconn_event_data_init(obj TSRMLS_CC);
+                       php_pqconn_resource_factory_data_t rfdata = {dsn_str, flags};
+
+                       obj->intern = ecalloc(1, sizeof(*obj->intern));
 
-               zend_hash_init(&obj->intern->listeners, 0, NULL, (dtor_func_t) zend_hash_destroy, 0);
-               zend_hash_init(&obj->intern->eventhandlers, 0, NULL, ZVAL_PTR_DTOR, 0);
+                       zend_hash_init(&obj->intern->listeners, 0, NULL, (dtor_func_t) zend_hash_destroy, 0);
+                       zend_hash_init(&obj->intern->eventhandlers, 0, NULL, ZVAL_PTR_DTOR, 0);
 
-               if (flags & PHP_PQCONN_PERSISTENT) {
-                       php_persistent_handle_factory_t *phf = php_persistent_handle_concede(NULL, ZEND_STRL("pq\\Connection"), dsn_str, dsn_len, php_pqconn_wakeup, php_pqconn_retire TSRMLS_CC);
-                       php_resource_factory_init(&obj->intern->factory, php_persistent_handle_get_resource_factory_ops(), phf, (void (*)(void*)) php_persistent_handle_abandon);
-               } else {
-                       php_resource_factory_init(&obj->intern->factory, &php_pqconn_resource_factory_ops, NULL, NULL);
-               }
+                       if (flags & PHP_PQCONN_PERSISTENT) {
+                               php_persistent_handle_factory_t *phf = php_persistent_handle_concede(NULL, ZEND_STRL("pq\\Connection"), dsn_str, dsn_len, php_pqconn_wakeup, php_pqconn_retire TSRMLS_CC);
+                               php_resource_factory_init(&obj->intern->factory, php_persistent_handle_get_resource_factory_ops(), phf, (void (*)(void*)) php_persistent_handle_abandon);
+                       } else {
+                               php_resource_factory_init(&obj->intern->factory, &php_pqconn_resource_factory_ops, NULL, NULL);
+                       }
 
-               if (flags & PHP_PQCONN_ASYNC) {
-                       obj->intern->poller = (int (*)(PGconn*)) PQconnectPoll;
-               }
+                       if (flags & PHP_PQCONN_ASYNC) {
+                               obj->intern->poller = (int (*)(PGconn*)) PQconnectPoll;
+                       }
 
-               obj->intern->conn = php_resource_factory_handle_ctor(&obj->intern->factory, &rfdata TSRMLS_CC);
+                       obj->intern->conn = php_resource_factory_handle_ctor(&obj->intern->factory, &rfdata TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               PQsetInstanceData(obj->intern->conn, php_pqconn_event, evdata);
-               PQsetNoticeReceiver(obj->intern->conn, php_pqconn_notice_recv, evdata);
+                       PQsetInstanceData(obj->intern->conn, php_pqconn_event, evdata);
+                       PQsetNoticeReceiver(obj->intern->conn, php_pqconn_notice_recv, evdata);
 
-               if (SUCCESS != php_pqconn_update_socket(getThis(), obj TSRMLS_CC)) {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Connection failed (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
+                       if (SUCCESS != php_pqconn_update_socket(getThis(), obj TSRMLS_CC)) {
+                               zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_CONNECTION_FAILED), EX_CONNECTION_FAILED TSRMLS_CC, "Connection failed (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
+                       }
                }
        }
-       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 }
 
 ZEND_BEGIN_ARG_INFO_EX(ai_pqconn_reset, 0, 0, 0)
@@ -1963,41 +2038,43 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqconn, listen) {
        if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "sf", &channel_str, &channel_len, &listener.fci, &listener.fcc)) {
                php_pqconn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               obj->intern->poller = PQconsumeInput;
-
-               if (obj->intern) {
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
+               } else {
                        char *quoted_channel = PQescapeIdentifier(obj->intern->conn, channel_str, channel_len);
 
-                       if (quoted_channel) {
+                       if (!quoted_channel) {
+                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Failed to escape channel identifier (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
+                               RETVAL_FALSE;
+                       } else {
                                PGresult *res;
-                               char *cmd;
+                               smart_str cmd = {0};
+
+                               smart_str_appends(&cmd, "LISTEN ");
+                               smart_str_appends(&cmd, quoted_channel);
+                               smart_str_0(&cmd);
 
-                               spprintf(&cmd, 0, "LISTEN %s", quoted_channel);
-                               res = PQexec(obj->intern->conn, cmd);
+                               res = PQexec(obj->intern->conn, cmd.c);
 
-                               efree(cmd);
+                               smart_str_free(&cmd);
                                PQfreemem(quoted_channel);
 
-                               if (res) {
-                                       if (SUCCESS == php_pqres_success(res TSRMLS_CC)) {
+                               if (!res) {
+                                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Failed to install listener (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
+                                       RETVAL_FALSE;
+                               } else {
+                                       if (SUCCESS != php_pqres_success(res TSRMLS_CC)) {
+                                               RETVAL_FALSE;
+                                       } else {
+                                               obj->intern->poller = PQconsumeInput;
                                                php_pqconn_add_listener(obj, channel_str, channel_len, &listener TSRMLS_CC);
                                                RETVAL_TRUE;
-                                       } else {
-                                               RETVAL_FALSE;
                                        }
                                        PHP_PQclear(res);
-                               } else {
-                                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Could not install listener (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
-                                       RETVAL_FALSE;
                                }
 
                                php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj TSRMLS_CC);
-                       } else {
-                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Could not escape channel identifier (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
                        }
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
-                       RETVAL_FALSE;
                }
        }
 }
@@ -2014,35 +2091,32 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqconn, listenAsync) {
        if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "sf", &channel_str, &channel_len, &listener.fci, &listener.fcc)) {
                php_pqconn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               obj->intern->poller = PQconsumeInput;
-
-               if (obj->intern) {
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
+               } else {
                        char *quoted_channel = PQescapeIdentifier(obj->intern->conn, channel_str, channel_len);
 
-                       if (quoted_channel) {
-                               char *cmd;
+                       if (!quoted_channel) {
+                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Failed to escape channel identifier (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
+                       } else {
+                               smart_str cmd = {0};
 
-                               obj->intern->poller = PQconsumeInput;
+                               smart_str_appends(&cmd, "LISTEN ");
+                               smart_str_appends(&cmd, quoted_channel);
+                               smart_str_0(&cmd);
 
-                               spprintf(&cmd, 0, "LISTEN %s", channel_str);
-                               if (PQsendQuery(obj->intern->conn, cmd)) {
+                               if (!PQsendQuery(obj->intern->conn, cmd.c)) {
+                                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Failed to install listener (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
+                                       RETVAL_FALSE;
+                               } else {
+                                       obj->intern->poller = PQconsumeInput;
                                        php_pqconn_add_listener(obj, channel_str, channel_len, &listener TSRMLS_CC);
                                        RETVAL_TRUE;
-                               } else {
-                                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Could not install listener (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
-                                       RETVAL_FALSE;
                                }
 
-                               efree(cmd);
+                               smart_str_free(&cmd);
                                PQfreemem(quoted_channel);
-
-                               php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj TSRMLS_CC);
-                       } else {
-                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Could not escape channel identifier (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
                        }
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
-                       RETVAL_FALSE;
                }
        }
 }
@@ -2058,29 +2132,27 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqconn, notify) {
        if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "ss", &channel_str, &channel_len, &message_str, &message_len)) {
                php_pqconn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
+               } else {
                        PGresult *res;
                        char *params[2] = {channel_str, message_str};
 
                        res = PQexecParams(obj->intern->conn, "select pg_notify($1, $2)", 2, NULL, (const char *const*) params, NULL, NULL, 0);
 
-                       if (res) {
-                               if (SUCCESS == php_pqres_success(res TSRMLS_CC)) {
-                                       RETVAL_TRUE;
-                               } else {
+                       if (!res) {
+                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Failed to notify listeners (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
+                               RETVAL_FALSE;
+                       } else {
+                               if (SUCCESS != php_pqres_success(res TSRMLS_CC)) {
                                        RETVAL_FALSE;
+                               } else {
+                                       RETVAL_TRUE;
                                }
                                PHP_PQclear(res);
-                       } else {
-                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Could not notify listeners (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
-                               RETVAL_FALSE;
                        }
 
                        php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj TSRMLS_CC);
-
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
-                       RETVAL_FALSE;
                }
        }
 }
@@ -2096,23 +2168,20 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqconn, notifyAsync) {
        if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "ss", &channel_str, &channel_len, &message_str, &message_len)) {
                php_pqconn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
+               } else {
                        char *params[2] = {channel_str, message_str};
 
-                       obj->intern->poller = PQconsumeInput;
-
-                       if (PQsendQueryParams(obj->intern->conn, "select pg_notify($1, $2)", 2, NULL, (const char *const*) params, NULL, NULL, 0)) {
-                               RETVAL_TRUE;
-                       } else {
-                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Could not notify listeners (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
+                       if (!PQsendQueryParams(obj->intern->conn, "select pg_notify($1, $2)", 2, NULL, (const char *const*) params, NULL, NULL, 0)) {
+                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Failed to notify listeners (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
                                RETVAL_FALSE;
+                       } else {
+                               obj->intern->poller = PQconsumeInput;
+                               RETVAL_TRUE;
                        }
 
                        php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj TSRMLS_CC);
-
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
-                       RETVAL_FALSE;
                }
        }
 }
@@ -2123,22 +2192,16 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqconn, poll) {
        if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters_none()) {
                php_pqconn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
-                       if (obj->intern->poller) {
-                               if (obj->intern->poller == PQconsumeInput) {
-                                       RETVAL_LONG(obj->intern->poller(obj->intern->conn) * PGRES_POLLING_OK);
-                                       php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj TSRMLS_CC);
-                                       return;
-                               } else {
-                                       RETURN_LONG(obj->intern->poller(obj->intern->conn));
-                               }
-                       } else {
-                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "No asynchronous operation active");
-                       }
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
+               } else if (!obj->intern->poller) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "No asynchronous operation active");
+               } else if (obj->intern->poller == PQconsumeInput) {
+                       RETVAL_LONG(obj->intern->poller(obj->intern->conn) * PGRES_POLLING_OK);
                } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
+                       RETVAL_LONG(obj->intern->poller(obj->intern->conn));
                }
-               RETURN_FALSE;
+               php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj TSRMLS_CC);
        }
 }
 
@@ -2149,33 +2212,34 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqconn, exec) {
        zend_error_handling zeh;
        char *query_str;
        int query_len;
+       STATUS rv;
 
-       zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, NULL, &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "s", &query_str, &query_len)) {
+       zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, exce(EX_INVALID_ARGUMENT), &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "s", &query_str, &query_len);
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
                php_pqconn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
+               } else {
                        PGresult *res = PQexec(obj->intern->conn, query_str);
 
-                       php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj TSRMLS_CC);
-
-                       if (res) {
-                               if (SUCCESS == php_pqres_success(res TSRMLS_CC)) {
-                                       php_pqres_t *r = ecalloc(1, sizeof(*r));
+                       if (!res) {
+                               zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "Failed to execute query (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
+                       } else if (SUCCESS == php_pqres_success(res TSRMLS_CC)) {
+                               php_pqres_t *r = ecalloc(1, sizeof(*r));
 
-                                       r->res = res;
-                                       ZEND_INIT_SYMTABLE(&r->bound);
-                                       return_value->type = IS_OBJECT;
-                                       return_value->value.obj = php_pqres_create_object_ex(php_pqres_class_entry, r, NULL TSRMLS_CC);
-                               }
-                       } else {
-                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Could not execute query (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
+                               r->res = res;
+                               ZEND_INIT_SYMTABLE(&r->bound);
+                               return_value->type = IS_OBJECT;
+                               return_value->value.obj = php_pqres_create_object_ex(php_pqres_class_entry, r, NULL TSRMLS_CC);
                        }
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
+
+                       php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj TSRMLS_CC);
                }
        }
-       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 }
 
 ZEND_BEGIN_ARG_INFO_EX(ai_pqconn_get_result, 0, 0, 0)
@@ -2184,22 +2248,23 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqconn, getResult) {
        if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters_none()) {
                php_pqconn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Connectio not initialized");
+               } else {
                        PGresult *res = PQgetResult(obj->intern->conn);
 
-                       if (res) {
+                       if (!res) {
+                               RETVAL_NULL();
+                       } else {
                                php_pqres_t *r = ecalloc(1, sizeof(*r));
 
                                r->res = res;
                                ZEND_INIT_SYMTABLE(&r->bound);
                                return_value->type = IS_OBJECT;
                                return_value->value.obj = php_pqres_create_object_ex(php_pqres_class_entry, r, NULL TSRMLS_CC);
-                       } else {
-                               RETVAL_NULL();
                        }
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
-                       RETVAL_FALSE;
+
+                       php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj TSRMLS_CC);
                }
        }
 }
@@ -2213,37 +2278,31 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqconn, execAsync) {
        php_pq_callback_t resolver = {{0}};
        char *query_str;
        int query_len;
+       STATUS rv;
 
-       zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, NULL, &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "s|f", &query_str, &query_len, &resolver.fci, &resolver.fcc)) {
+       zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, exce(EX_INVALID_ARGUMENT), &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "s|f", &query_str, &query_len, &resolver.fci, &resolver.fcc);
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
                php_pqconn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
+               } else if (!PQsendQuery(obj->intern->conn, query_str)) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "Failed to enable unbuffered mode (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
+               } else if (obj->intern->unbuffered && !PQsetSingleRowMode(obj->intern->conn)) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "Failed to request unbuffered result handling (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
+               } else {
+                       obj->intern->poller = PQconsumeInput;
                        php_pq_callback_dtor(&obj->intern->onevent);
                        if (resolver.fci.size > 0) {
                                obj->intern->onevent = resolver;
                                php_pq_callback_addref(&obj->intern->onevent);
                        }
-
-                       obj->intern->poller = PQconsumeInput;
-
-                       if (PQsendQuery(obj->intern->conn, query_str)) {
-                               if (obj->intern->unbuffered) {
-                                       if (!PQsetSingleRowMode(obj->intern->conn)) {
-                                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_NOTICE, "Could not enable unbuffered mode (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
-                                       }
-                               }
-                               RETVAL_TRUE;
-                       } else {
-                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Could not execute query (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
-                               RETVAL_FALSE;
-                       }
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
-                       RETVAL_FALSE;
+                       php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj TSRMLS_CC);
                }
        }
-       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 }
 
 static int apply_to_oid(void *p, void *arg TSRMLS_DC)
@@ -2354,12 +2413,18 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqconn, execParams) {
        int query_len;
        zval *zparams;
        zval *ztypes = NULL;
+       STATUS rv;
 
-       zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, NULL, &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "sa/|a/!", &query_str, &query_len, &zparams, &ztypes)) {
+       zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, exce(EX_INVALID_ARGUMENT), &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "sa/|a/!", &query_str, &query_len, &zparams, &ztypes);
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
                php_pqconn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
+               } else {
                        PGresult *res;
                        int count;
                        Oid *types = NULL;
@@ -2383,9 +2448,9 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqconn, execParams) {
                                efree(params);
                        }
 
-                       php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj TSRMLS_CC);
-
-                       if (res) {
+                       if (!res) {
+                               zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "Failed to execute query (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
+                       } else {
                                if (SUCCESS == php_pqres_success(res TSRMLS_CC)) {
                                        php_pqres_t *r = ecalloc(1, sizeof(*r));
 
@@ -2394,16 +2459,11 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqconn, execParams) {
                                        return_value->type = IS_OBJECT;
                                        return_value->value.obj = php_pqres_create_object_ex(php_pqres_class_entry, r, NULL TSRMLS_CC);
                                }
-                       } else {
-                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Could not execute query (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
-                               RETVAL_FALSE;
+
+                               php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj TSRMLS_CC);
                        }
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
-                       RETVAL_FALSE;
                }
        }
-       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 }
 
 ZEND_BEGIN_ARG_INFO_EX(ai_pqconn_exec_params_async, 0, 0, 2)
@@ -2419,12 +2479,18 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqconn, execParamsAsync) {
        int query_len;
        zval *zparams;
        zval *ztypes = NULL;
+       STATUS rv;
 
-       zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, NULL, &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "sa/|a/!f", &query_str, &query_len, &zparams, &ztypes, &resolver.fci, &resolver.fcc)) {
+       zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, exce(EX_INVALID_ARGUMENT), &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "sa/|a/!f", &query_str, &query_len, &zparams, &ztypes, &resolver.fci, &resolver.fcc);
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
                php_pqconn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
+               } else {
                        int count;
                        Oid *types = NULL;
                        char **params = NULL;
@@ -2437,24 +2503,18 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqconn, execParamsAsync) {
                                php_pq_types_to_array(Z_ARRVAL_P(ztypes), &types TSRMLS_CC);
                        }
 
-                       php_pq_callback_dtor(&obj->intern->onevent);
-                       if (resolver.fci.size > 0) {
-                               obj->intern->onevent = resolver;
-                               php_pq_callback_addref(&obj->intern->onevent);
-                       }
-
-                       obj->intern->poller = PQconsumeInput;
-
-                       if (PQsendQueryParams(obj->intern->conn, query_str, count, types, (const char *const*) params, NULL, NULL, 0)) {
-                               if (obj->intern->unbuffered) {
-                                       if (!PQsetSingleRowMode(obj->intern->conn)) {
-                                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_NOTICE, "Could not enable unbuffered mode (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
-                                       }
-                               }
-                               RETVAL_TRUE;
+                       if (!PQsendQueryParams(obj->intern->conn, query_str, count, types, (const char *const*) params, NULL, NULL, 0)) {
+                               zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "Failed to execute query (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
+                       } else if (obj->intern->unbuffered && !PQsetSingleRowMode(obj->intern->conn)) {
+                               zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "Failed to enable unbuffered mode (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
                        } else {
-                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Could not execute query (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
-                               RETVAL_FALSE;
+                               obj->intern->poller = PQconsumeInput;
+                               php_pq_callback_dtor(&obj->intern->onevent);
+                               if (resolver.fci.size > 0) {
+                                       obj->intern->onevent = resolver;
+                                       php_pq_callback_addref(&obj->intern->onevent);
+                               }
+                               php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj TSRMLS_CC);
                        }
 
                        zend_hash_destroy(&zdtor);
@@ -2464,12 +2524,6 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqconn, execParamsAsync) {
                        if (params) {
                                efree(params);
                        }
-
-                       php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj TSRMLS_CC);
-
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
-                       RETVAL_FALSE;
                }
        }
        zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
@@ -2497,12 +2551,13 @@ static STATUS php_pqconn_prepare(zval *object, php_pqconn_object_t *obj, const c
                efree(types);
        }
 
-       if (res) {
+       if (!res) {
+               rv = FAILURE;
+               zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "Failed to prepare statement (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
+       } else {
                rv = php_pqres_success(res TSRMLS_CC);
                PHP_PQclear(res);
-       } else {
-               rv = FAILURE;
-               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Could not prepare statement (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
+               php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj TSRMLS_CC);
        }
        
        return rv;
@@ -2518,29 +2573,29 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqconn, prepare) {
        zval *ztypes = NULL;
        char *name_str, *query_str;
        int name_len, *query_len;
+       STATUS rv;
 
-       zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, NULL, &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "ss|a/!", &name_str, &name_len, &query_str, &query_len, &ztypes)) {
+       zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, exce(EX_INVALID_ARGUMENT), &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "ss|a/!", &name_str, &name_len, &query_str, &query_len, &ztypes);
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
                php_pqconn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
-                       if (SUCCESS == php_pqconn_prepare(getThis(), obj, name_str, query_str, ztypes ? Z_ARRVAL_P(ztypes) : NULL TSRMLS_CC)) {
-                               php_pqstm_t *stm = ecalloc(1, sizeof(*stm));
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
+               } else if (SUCCESS == php_pqconn_prepare(getThis(), obj, name_str, query_str, ztypes ? Z_ARRVAL_P(ztypes) : NULL TSRMLS_CC)) {
+                       php_pqstm_t *stm = ecalloc(1, sizeof(*stm));
 
-                               php_pq_object_addref(obj TSRMLS_CC);
-                               stm->conn = obj;
-                               stm->name = estrdup(name_str);
-                               ZEND_INIT_SYMTABLE(&stm->bound);
+                       php_pq_object_addref(obj TSRMLS_CC);
+                       stm->conn = obj;
+                       stm->name = estrdup(name_str);
+                       ZEND_INIT_SYMTABLE(&stm->bound);
 
-                               return_value->type = IS_OBJECT;
-                               return_value->value.obj = php_pqstm_create_object_ex(php_pqstm_class_entry, stm, NULL TSRMLS_CC);
-                       }
-                       php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj TSRMLS_CC);
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
+                       return_value->type = IS_OBJECT;
+                       return_value->value.obj = php_pqstm_create_object_ex(php_pqstm_class_entry, stm, NULL TSRMLS_CC);
                }
        }
-       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 }
 
 static STATUS php_pqconn_prepare_async(zval *object, php_pqconn_object_t *obj, const char *name, const char *query, HashTable *typest TSRMLS_DC)
@@ -2557,16 +2612,16 @@ static STATUS php_pqconn_prepare_async(zval *object, php_pqconn_object_t *obj, c
                count = php_pq_types_to_array(typest, &types TSRMLS_CC);
        }
        
-       if (PQsendPrepare(obj->intern->conn, name, query, count, types)) {
-               if (obj->intern->unbuffered) {
-                       if (!PQsetSingleRowMode(obj->intern->conn)) {
-                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_NOTICE, "Could not enable unbuffered mode (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
-                       }
-               }
-               rv = SUCCESS;
-       } else {
-               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Could not prepare statement (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
+       if (!PQsendPrepare(obj->intern->conn, name, query, count, types)) {
+               rv = FAILURE;
+               zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "Failed to prepare statement (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
+       } else if (obj->intern->unbuffered && !PQsetSingleRowMode(obj->intern->conn)) {
                rv = FAILURE;
+               zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "Failed to enable unbuffered mode (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
+       } else {
+               rv = SUCCESS;
+               obj->intern->poller = PQconsumeInput;
+               php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj TSRMLS_CC);
        }
        
        if (types) {
@@ -2586,30 +2641,29 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqconn, prepareAsync) {
        zval *ztypes = NULL;
        char *name_str, *query_str;
        int name_len, *query_len;
+       STATUS rv;
 
-       zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, NULL, &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "ss|a/!", &name_str, &name_len, &query_str, &query_len, &ztypes)) {
+       zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, exce(EX_INVALID_ARGUMENT), &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "ss|a/!", &name_str, &name_len, &query_str, &query_len, &ztypes);
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
                php_pqconn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
-                       obj->intern->poller = PQconsumeInput;
-                       if (SUCCESS == php_pqconn_prepare_async(getThis(), obj, name_str, query_str, ztypes ? Z_ARRVAL_P(ztypes) : NULL TSRMLS_CC)) {
-                               php_pqstm_t *stm = ecalloc(1, sizeof(*stm));
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
+               } else if (SUCCESS == php_pqconn_prepare_async(getThis(), obj, name_str, query_str, ztypes ? Z_ARRVAL_P(ztypes) : NULL TSRMLS_CC)) {
+                       php_pqstm_t *stm = ecalloc(1, sizeof(*stm));
 
-                               php_pq_object_addref(obj TSRMLS_CC);
-                               stm->conn = obj;
-                               stm->name = estrdup(name_str);
-                               ZEND_INIT_SYMTABLE(&stm->bound);
+                       php_pq_object_addref(obj TSRMLS_CC);
+                       stm->conn = obj;
+                       stm->name = estrdup(name_str);
+                       ZEND_INIT_SYMTABLE(&stm->bound);
 
-                               return_value->type = IS_OBJECT;
-                               return_value->value.obj = php_pqstm_create_object_ex(php_pqstm_class_entry, stm, NULL TSRMLS_CC);
-                       }
-                       php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj TSRMLS_CC);
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
+                       return_value->type = IS_OBJECT;
+                       return_value->value.obj = php_pqstm_create_object_ex(php_pqstm_class_entry, stm, NULL TSRMLS_CC);
                }
        }
-       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 }
 
 ZEND_BEGIN_ARG_INFO_EX(ai_pqconn_quote, 0, 0, 1)
@@ -2622,19 +2676,18 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqconn, quote) {
        if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "s", &str, &len)) {
                php_pqconn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
+               } else {
                        char *quoted = PQescapeLiteral(obj->intern->conn, str, len);
 
-                       if (quoted) {
+                       if (!quoted) {
+                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Failed to quote string (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
+                               RETVAL_FALSE;
+                       } else {
                                RETVAL_STRING(quoted, 1);
                                PQfreemem(quoted);
-                       } else {
-                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Could not quote string (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
-                               RETVAL_FALSE;
                        }
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
-                       RETVAL_FALSE;
                }
        }
 }
@@ -2649,19 +2702,18 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqconn, quoteName) {
        if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "s", &str, &len)) {
                php_pqconn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
+               } else {
                        char *quoted = PQescapeIdentifier(obj->intern->conn, str, len);
 
-                       if (quoted) {
+                       if (!quoted) {
+                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Failed to quote name (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
+                               RETVAL_FALSE;
+                       } else {
                                RETVAL_STRING(quoted, 1);
                                PQfreemem(quoted);
-                       } else {
-                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Could not quote name (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
-                               RETVAL_FALSE;
                        }
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
-                       RETVAL_FALSE;
                }
        }
 }
@@ -2676,20 +2728,19 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqconn, escapeBytea) {
        if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "s", &str, &len)) {
                php_pqconn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
+               } else {
                        size_t escaped_len;
                        char *escaped_str = (char *) PQescapeByteaConn(obj->intern->conn, (unsigned char *) str, len, &escaped_len);
 
-                       if (escaped_str) {
+                       if (!escaped_str) {
+                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Failed to escape bytea (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
+                               RETVAL_FALSE;
+                       } else {
                                RETVAL_STRINGL(escaped_str, escaped_len - 1, 1);
                                PQfreemem(escaped_str);
-                       } else {
-                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Could not escape bytea (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
-                               RETVAL_FALSE;
                        }
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
-                       RETVAL_FALSE;
                }
        }
 }
@@ -2704,20 +2755,19 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqconn, unescapeBytea) {
        if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "s", &str, &len)) {
                php_pqconn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
+               } else {
                        size_t unescaped_len;
                        char *unescaped_str = (char *) PQunescapeBytea((unsigned char *)str, &unescaped_len);
 
-                       if (unescaped_str) {
+                       if (!unescaped_str) {
+                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Failed to unescape bytea (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
+                               RETVAL_FALSE;
+                       } else {
                                RETVAL_STRINGL(unescaped_str, unescaped_len, 1);
                                PQfreemem(unescaped_str);
-                       } else {
-                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Could not unescape bytea (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn));
-                               RETVAL_FALSE;
                        }
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
-                       RETVAL_FALSE;
                }
        }
 }
@@ -2738,61 +2788,79 @@ static const char *isolation_level(long *isolation) {
 
 static STATUS php_pqconn_start_transaction(zval *zconn, php_pqconn_object_t *conn_obj, long isolation, zend_bool readonly, zend_bool deferrable TSRMLS_DC)
 {
+       STATUS rv = FAILURE;
+
        if (!conn_obj) {
                conn_obj = zend_object_store_get_object(zconn TSRMLS_CC);
        }
 
-       if (conn_obj->intern) {
+       if (!conn_obj->intern) {
+               zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
+       } else {
                PGresult *res;
-               char *cmd;
-
-               spprintf(&cmd, 0, "START TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL %s, READ %s, %s DEFERRABLE",
-                               isolation_level(&isolation), readonly ? "ONLY" : "WRITE", deferrable ? "": "NOT");
-
-               res = PQexec(conn_obj->intern->conn, cmd);
-
-               efree(cmd);
-
-               if (res) {
-                       STATUS rv = php_pqres_success(res TSRMLS_CC);
-
-                       PHP_PQclear(res);
-                       return rv;
+               smart_str cmd = {0};
+               const char *il = isolation_level(&isolation);
+
+               smart_str_appends(&cmd, "START TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL ");
+               smart_str_appends(&cmd, il);
+               smart_str_appends(&cmd, ", READ ");
+               smart_str_appends(&cmd, readonly ? "ONLY" : "WRITE");
+               smart_str_appends(&cmd, ",");
+               smart_str_appends(&cmd, deferrable ? "" : " NOT");
+               smart_str_appends(&cmd, " DEFERRABLE");
+               smart_str_0(&cmd);
+
+               res = PQexec(conn_obj->intern->conn, cmd.c);
+
+               if (!res) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "Failed to start transaction (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(conn_obj->intern->conn));
                } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Could not start transaction (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(conn_obj->intern->conn));
-                       return FAILURE;
+                       rv = php_pqres_success(res TSRMLS_CC);
+                       PHP_PQclear(res);
+                       php_pqconn_notify_listeners(conn_obj TSRMLS_CC);
                }
-       } else {
-               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
-               return FAILURE;
+
+               smart_str_free(&cmd);
        }
+
+       return rv;
 }
 
 static STATUS php_pqconn_start_transaction_async(zval *zconn, php_pqconn_object_t *conn_obj, long isolation, zend_bool readonly, zend_bool deferrable TSRMLS_DC)
 {
+       STATUS rv = FAILURE;
+
        if (!conn_obj) {
                conn_obj = zend_object_store_get_object(zconn TSRMLS_CC);
        }
 
-       if (conn_obj->intern->conn) {
-               char *cmd;
-
-               spprintf(&cmd, 0, "START TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL %s, READ %s, %s DEFERRABLE",
-                               isolation_level(&isolation), readonly ? "ONLY" : "WRITE", deferrable ? "": "NOT");
-
-               if (PQsendQuery(conn_obj->intern->conn, cmd)) {
-                       conn_obj->intern->poller = PQconsumeInput;
-                       efree(cmd);
-                       return SUCCESS;
+       if (!conn_obj->intern) {
+               zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
+       } else {
+               smart_str cmd = {0};
+               const char *il = isolation_level(&isolation);
+
+               smart_str_appends(&cmd, "START TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL ");
+               smart_str_appends(&cmd, il);
+               smart_str_appends(&cmd, ", READ ");
+               smart_str_appends(&cmd, readonly ? "ONLY" : "WRITE");
+               smart_str_appends(&cmd, ",");
+               smart_str_appends(&cmd, deferrable ? "" : "NOT ");
+               smart_str_appends(&cmd, " DEFERRABLE");
+               smart_str_0(&cmd);
+
+               if (!PQsendQuery(conn_obj->intern->conn, cmd.c)) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "Failed to start transaction (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(conn_obj->intern->conn));
                } else {
-                       efree(cmd);
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Could not start transaction (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(conn_obj->intern->conn));
-                       return FAILURE;
+                       rv = SUCCESS;
+                       conn_obj->intern->poller = PQconsumeInput;
+                       php_pqconn_notify_listeners(conn_obj TSRMLS_CC);
                }
-       } else {
-               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
-               return FAILURE;
+
+               smart_str_free(&cmd);
        }
+
+       return rv;
 }
 
 ZEND_BEGIN_ARG_INFO_EX(ai_pqconn_start_transaction, 0, 0, 0)
@@ -2804,10 +2872,13 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqconn, startTransaction) {
        zend_error_handling zeh;
        long isolation = PHP_PQTXN_READ_COMMITTED;
        zend_bool readonly = 0, deferrable = 0;
+       STATUS rv;
 
-       zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, NULL, &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "|lbb", &isolation, &readonly, &deferrable)) {
-               STATUS rv;
+       zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, exce(EX_INVALID_ARGUMENT), &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "|lbb", &isolation, &readonly, &deferrable);
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
                php_pqconn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
                rv = php_pqconn_start_transaction(getThis(), obj, isolation, readonly, deferrable TSRMLS_CC);
@@ -2817,6 +2888,7 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqconn, startTransaction) {
 
                        php_pq_object_addref(obj TSRMLS_CC);
                        txn->conn = obj;
+                       txn->open = 1;
                        txn->isolation = isolation;
                        txn->readonly = readonly;
                        txn->deferrable = deferrable;
@@ -2825,7 +2897,6 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqconn, startTransaction) {
                        return_value->value.obj = php_pqtxn_create_object_ex(php_pqtxn_class_entry, txn, NULL TSRMLS_CC);
                }
        }
-       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 }
 
 
@@ -2838,10 +2909,12 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqconn, startTransactionAsync) {
        zend_error_handling zeh;
        long isolation = PHP_PQTXN_READ_COMMITTED;
        zend_bool readonly = 0, deferrable = 0;
+       STATUS rv;
 
-       zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, NULL, &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "|lbb", &isolation, &readonly, &deferrable)) {
-               STATUS rv;
+       zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, exce(EX_INVALID_ARGUMENT), &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "|lbb", &isolation, &readonly, &deferrable);
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
                php_pqconn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
                rv = php_pqconn_start_transaction_async(getThis(), obj, isolation, readonly, deferrable TSRMLS_CC);
@@ -2859,7 +2932,6 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqconn, startTransactionAsync) {
                        return_value->value.obj = php_pqtxn_create_object_ex(php_pqtxn_class_entry, txn, NULL TSRMLS_CC);
                }
        }
-       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 }
 
 ZEND_BEGIN_ARG_INFO_EX(ai_pqconn_trace, 0, 0, 0)
@@ -2870,27 +2942,27 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqconn, trace) {
 
        if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "|r!", &zstream)) {
                php_pqconn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
-               if (obj->intern) {
-                       if (zstream) {
+
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
+               } else {
+                       if (!zstream) {
+                               PQuntrace(obj->intern->conn);
+                               RETVAL_TRUE;
+                       } else {
                                FILE *fp;
                                php_stream *stream = NULL;
 
                                php_stream_from_zval(stream, &zstream);
 
-                               if (SUCCESS == php_stream_cast(stream, PHP_STREAM_AS_STDIO, (void *) &fp, REPORT_ERRORS)) {
+                               if (SUCCESS != php_stream_cast(stream, PHP_STREAM_AS_STDIO, (void *) &fp, REPORT_ERRORS)) {
+                                       RETVAL_FALSE;
+                               } else {
                                        stream->flags |= PHP_STREAM_FLAG_NO_CLOSE;
                                        PQtrace(obj->intern->conn, fp);
                                        RETVAL_TRUE;
-                               } else {
-                                       RETVAL_FALSE;
                                }
-                       } else {
-                               PQuntrace(obj->intern->conn);
-                               RETVAL_TRUE;
                        }
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
-                       RETVAL_FALSE;
                }
        }
 }
@@ -2928,33 +3000,39 @@ ZEND_END_ARG_INFO();
 static PHP_METHOD(pqtypes, __construct) {
        zend_error_handling zeh;
        zval *zconn, *znsp = NULL;
+       STATUS rv;
 
-       zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, NULL, &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "O|a!", &zconn, php_pqconn_class_entry, &znsp)) {
+       zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, exce(EX_INVALID_ARGUMENT), &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "O|a!", &zconn, php_pqconn_class_entry, &znsp);
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
                php_pqconn_object_t *conn_obj = zend_object_store_get_object(zconn TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (conn_obj->intern) {
-                       zval *retval = NULL;
+               if (!conn_obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
+               } else {
                        php_pqtypes_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
+                       zval *retval = NULL;
 
                        obj->intern = ecalloc(1, sizeof(*obj->intern));
                        obj->intern->conn = conn_obj;
                        php_pq_object_addref(conn_obj TSRMLS_CC);
                        zend_hash_init(&obj->intern->types, 300, NULL, ZVAL_PTR_DTOR, 0);
 
+                       zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, exce(EX_RUNTIME), &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
                        if (znsp) {
                                zend_call_method_with_1_params(&getThis(), Z_OBJCE_P(getThis()), NULL, "refresh", &retval, znsp);
                        } else {
                                zend_call_method_with_0_params(&getThis(), Z_OBJCE_P(getThis()), NULL, "refresh", &retval);
                        }
+                       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+
                        if (retval) {
                                zval_ptr_dtor(&retval);
                        }
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
                }
        }
-       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 }
 
 #define PHP_PQ_TYPES_QUERY \
@@ -2969,14 +3047,24 @@ ZEND_BEGIN_ARG_INFO_EX(ai_pqtypes_refresh, 0, 0, 0)
 ZEND_END_ARG_INFO();
 static PHP_METHOD(pqtypes, refresh) {
        HashTable *nsp = NULL;
+       zend_error_handling zeh;
+       STATUS rv;
 
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "|H/!", &nsp)) {
+       zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, exce(EX_INVALID_ARGUMENT), &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "|H/!", &nsp);
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
                php_pqtypes_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Types not initialized");
+               } else {
                        PGresult *res;
 
-                       if (nsp && zend_hash_num_elements(nsp)) {
+                       if (!nsp || !zend_hash_num_elements(nsp)) {
+                               res = PQexec(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, PHP_PQ_TYPES_QUERY " and nspname in ('public', 'pg_catalog')");
+                       } else {
                                int i, count;
                                Oid *oids;
                                char **params = NULL;
@@ -3004,14 +3092,12 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqtypes, refresh) {
                                efree(oids);
                                efree(params);
                                zend_hash_destroy(&zdtor);
-                       } else {
-                               res = PQexec(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, PHP_PQ_TYPES_QUERY " and nspname in ('public', 'pg_catalog')");
                        }
 
-                       php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj->intern->conn TSRMLS_CC);
-
-                       if (res) {
-                               if (PGRES_TUPLES_OK == PQresultStatus(res)) {
+                       if (!res) {
+                               zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "Failed to fetch types (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
+                       } else {
+                               if (SUCCESS == php_pqres_success(res TSRMLS_CC)) {
                                        int r, rows;
 
                                        for (r = 0, rows = PQntuples(res); r < rows; ++r) {
@@ -3024,16 +3110,11 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqtypes, refresh) {
                                                zend_hash_index_update(&obj->intern->types, oid, (void *) &row, sizeof(zval *), NULL);
                                                zend_hash_add(&obj->intern->types, name, strlen(name) + 1, (void *) &row, sizeof(zval *), NULL);
                                        }
-                               } else {
-                                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Could not fetch types (%s)", PHP_PQresultErrorMessage(res));
                                }
+
                                PHP_PQclear(res);
-                       } else {
-                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Could not fetch types (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
+                               php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj->intern->conn TSRMLS_CC);
                        }
-
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Types not initialized");
                }
        }
 }
@@ -3137,24 +3218,24 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqres, bind) {
        if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "z/z", &zcol, &zref)) {
                php_pqres_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Result not initialized");
+               } else {
                        php_pqres_col_t col;
 
-                       if (SUCCESS == column_nn(obj, zcol, &col TSRMLS_CC)) {
+                       if (SUCCESS != column_nn(obj, zcol, &col TSRMLS_CC)) {
+                               RETVAL_FALSE;
+                       } else {
                                Z_ADDREF_P(zref);
-                               if (SUCCESS == zend_hash_index_update(&obj->intern->bound, col.num, (void *) &zref, sizeof(zval *), NULL)) {
-                                       zend_hash_sort(&obj->intern->bound, zend_qsort, compare_index, 0 TSRMLS_CC);
-                                       RETVAL_TRUE;
-                               } else {
+
+                               if (SUCCESS != zend_hash_index_update(&obj->intern->bound, col.num, (void *) &zref, sizeof(zval *), NULL)) {
                                        php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Failed to bind column %s@%d", col.name, col.num);
                                        RETVAL_FALSE;
+                               } else {
+                                       zend_hash_sort(&obj->intern->bound, zend_qsort, compare_index, 0 TSRMLS_CC);
+                                       RETVAL_TRUE;
                                }
-                       } else {
-                               RETVAL_FALSE;
                        }
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Result not initialized");
-                       RETVAL_FALSE;
                }
        }
 }
@@ -3163,18 +3244,21 @@ static int apply_bound(void *p TSRMLS_DC, int argc, va_list argv, zend_hash_key
 {
        zval **zvalue, **zbound = p;
        zval **zrow = va_arg(argv, zval **);
+       STATUS *rv = va_arg(argv, STATUS *);
 
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_hash_index_find(Z_ARRVAL_PP(zrow), key->h, (void *) &zvalue)) {
+       if (SUCCESS != zend_hash_index_find(Z_ARRVAL_PP(zrow), key->h, (void *) &zvalue)) {
+               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Failed to find column ad index %lu", key->h);
+               *rv = FAILURE;
+               return ZEND_HASH_APPLY_STOP;
+       } else {
                zval_dtor(*zbound);
                ZVAL_COPY_VALUE(*zbound, *zvalue);
                ZVAL_NULL(*zvalue);
                zval_ptr_dtor(zvalue);
                Z_ADDREF_P(*zbound);
                *zvalue = *zbound;
+               *rv = SUCCESS;
                return ZEND_HASH_APPLY_KEEP;
-       } else {
-               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Failed to find column ad index %lu", key->h);
-               return ZEND_HASH_APPLY_STOP;
        }
 }
 
@@ -3182,23 +3266,33 @@ ZEND_BEGIN_ARG_INFO_EX(ai_pqres_fetch_bound, 0, 0, 0)
 ZEND_END_ARG_INFO();
 static PHP_METHOD(pqres, fetchBound) {
        zend_error_handling zeh;
+       STATUS rv;
 
-       zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, NULL, &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters_none()) {
+       zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, exce(EX_INVALID_ARGUMENT), &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters_none();
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
                php_pqres_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Result not initialized");
+               } else {
                        zval **row = NULL;
 
-                       if (SUCCESS == php_pqres_iteration(getThis(), obj, PHP_PQRES_FETCH_ARRAY, &row TSRMLS_CC)) {
-                               if (row) {
-                                       zend_hash_apply_with_arguments(&obj->intern->bound TSRMLS_CC, apply_bound, 1, row);
+                       if (SUCCESS == php_pqres_iteration(getThis(), obj, PHP_PQRES_FETCH_ARRAY, &row TSRMLS_CC) && row) {
+                               zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, exce(EX_RUNTIME), &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+                               zend_hash_apply_with_arguments(&obj->intern->bound TSRMLS_CC, apply_bound, 2, row, &rv);
+                               zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+
+                               if (SUCCESS != rv) {
+                                       zval_ptr_dtor(row);
+                               } else {
                                        RETVAL_ZVAL(*row, 1, 0);
                                }
                        }
                }
        }
-       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 }
 
 ZEND_BEGIN_ARG_INFO_EX(ai_pqres_fetch_row, 0, 0, 0)
@@ -3208,25 +3302,31 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqres, fetchRow) {
        zend_error_handling zeh;
        php_pqres_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
        long fetch_type = -1;
+       STATUS rv;
 
-       zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, NULL, &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "|l", &fetch_type)) {
-               if (obj->intern) {
+       zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, exce(EX_INVALID_ARGUMENT), &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "|l", &fetch_type);
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Result not initialized");
+               } else {
                        zval **row = NULL;
 
                        if (fetch_type == -1) {
                                 fetch_type = obj->intern->iter ? obj->intern->iter->fetch_type : PHP_PQRES_FETCH_ARRAY;
                        }
+
+                       zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, exce(EX_RUNTIME), &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
                        php_pqres_iteration(getThis(), obj, fetch_type, &row TSRMLS_CC);
+                       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 
                        if (row) {
                                RETVAL_ZVAL(*row, 1, 0);
                        }
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Result not initialized");
                }
        }
-       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 }
 
 static zval **column_at(zval *row, int col TSRMLS_DC)
@@ -3235,14 +3335,14 @@ static zval **column_at(zval *row, int col TSRMLS_DC)
        HashTable *ht = HASH_OF(row);
        int count = zend_hash_num_elements(ht);
 
-       if (col < count) {
+       if (col >= count) {
+               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Column index %d exceeds column count %d", col, count);
+       } else {
                zend_hash_internal_pointer_reset(ht);
                while (col-- > 0) {
                        zend_hash_move_forward(ht);
                }
                zend_hash_get_current_data(ht, (void *) &data);
-       } else {
-               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Column index %d exceeds column count %d", col, count);
        }
        return data;
 }
@@ -3253,16 +3353,22 @@ ZEND_END_ARG_INFO();
 static PHP_METHOD(pqres, fetchCol) {
        zend_error_handling zeh;
        long fetch_col = 0;
+       STATUS rv;
 
-       zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, NULL, &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "|l", &fetch_col)) {
+       zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, exce(EX_INVALID_ARGUMENT), &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "|l", &fetch_col);
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
                php_pqres_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Result not initialized");
+               } else {
                        zval **row = NULL;
 
+                       zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, exce(EX_RUNTIME), &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
                        php_pqres_iteration(getThis(), obj, obj->intern->iter ? obj->intern->iter->fetch_type : 0, &row TSRMLS_CC);
-
                        if (row) {
                                zval **col = column_at(*row, fetch_col TSRMLS_CC);
 
@@ -3270,11 +3376,9 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqres, fetchCol) {
                                        RETVAL_ZVAL(*col, 1, 0);
                                }
                        }
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Result not initialized");
+                       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
                }
        }
-       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 }
 
 static int apply_to_col(void *p TSRMLS_DC, int argc, va_list argv, zend_hash_key *key)
@@ -3285,15 +3389,15 @@ static int apply_to_col(void *p TSRMLS_DC, int argc, va_list argv, zend_hash_key
        STATUS *rv = va_arg(argv, STATUS *);
 
        col = *cols;
-       if (SUCCESS == column_nn(obj, *c, col TSRMLS_CC)) {
-               *rv = SUCCESS;
-       } else {
+
+       if (SUCCESS != column_nn(obj, *c, col TSRMLS_CC)) {
                *rv = FAILURE;
                return ZEND_HASH_APPLY_STOP;
+       } else {
+               *rv = SUCCESS;
+               ++*cols;
+               return ZEND_HASH_APPLY_KEEP;
        }
-       ++*cols;
-
-       return ZEND_HASH_APPLY_KEEP;
 }
 
 static php_pqres_col_t *php_pqres_convert_to_cols(php_pqres_object_t *obj, HashTable *ht TSRMLS_DC)
@@ -3321,13 +3425,18 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqres, map) {
        zend_error_handling zeh;
        zval *zkeys = 0, *zvals = 0;
        long fetch_type = -1;
-
+       STATUS rv;
 
        zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, NULL, &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "|z/!z/!l", &zkeys, &zvals, &fetch_type)) {
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "|z/!z/!l", &zkeys, &zvals, &fetch_type);
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
                php_pqres_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Result not initialized");
+               } else {
                        int ks = 0, vs = 0;
                        php_pqres_col_t def = {PQfname(obj->intern->res, 0), 0}, *keys = NULL, *vals = NULL;
 
@@ -3391,7 +3500,7 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqres, map) {
                                                                break;
                                                        }
                                                        if (SUCCESS != zend_symtable_update(HASH_OF(*cur), key, len + 1, (void *) &tmp, sizeof(zval *), (void *) &cur)) {
-                                                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Failed to create map");
+                                                               zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "Failed to create map");
                                                                goto err;
                                                        }
                                                }
@@ -3426,11 +3535,8 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqres, map) {
                        if (vals) {
                                efree(vals);
                        }
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Result not initialized");
                }
        }
-       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 }
 
 ZEND_BEGIN_ARG_INFO_EX(ai_pqres_count, 0, 0, 0)
@@ -3439,10 +3545,10 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqres, count) {
        if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters_none()) {
                long count;
 
-               if (SUCCESS == php_pqres_count_elements(getThis(), &count TSRMLS_CC)) {
-                       RETVAL_LONG(count);
+               if (SUCCESS != php_pqres_count_elements(getThis(), &count TSRMLS_CC)) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Result not initialized");
                } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Result not initialized");
+                       RETVAL_LONG(count);
                }
        }
 }
@@ -3470,20 +3576,23 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqstm, __construct) {
        char *name_str, *query_str;
        int name_len, *query_len;
        zend_bool async = 0;
+       STATUS rv;
 
        zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, NULL, &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "Oss|a/!b", &zconn, php_pqconn_class_entry, &name_str, &name_len, &query_str, &query_len, &ztypes, &async)) {
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "Oss|a/!b", &zconn, php_pqconn_class_entry, &name_str, &name_len, &query_str, &query_len, &ztypes, &async);
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
                php_pqstm_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
                php_pqconn_object_t *conn_obj = zend_object_store_get_object(zconn TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (conn_obj->intern) {
-                       STATUS rv;
+               if (!conn_obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
+               } else {
                        if (async) {
-                               conn_obj->intern->poller = PQconsumeInput;
                                rv = php_pqconn_prepare_async(zconn, conn_obj, name_str, query_str, ztypes ? Z_ARRVAL_P(ztypes) : NULL TSRMLS_CC);
                        } else {
                                rv = php_pqconn_prepare(zconn, conn_obj, name_str, query_str, ztypes ? Z_ARRVAL_P(ztypes) : NULL TSRMLS_CC);
-                               php_pqconn_notify_listeners(conn_obj TSRMLS_CC);
                        }
 
                        if (SUCCESS == rv) {
@@ -3495,11 +3604,8 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqstm, __construct) {
                                ZEND_INIT_SYMTABLE(&stm->bound);
                                obj->intern = stm;
                        }
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
                }
        }
-       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 }
 ZEND_BEGIN_ARG_INFO_EX(ai_pqstm_bind, 0, 0, 2)
        ZEND_ARG_INFO(0, param_no)
@@ -3512,12 +3618,12 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqstm, bind) {
        if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "lz", &param_no, &param_ref)) {
                php_pqstm_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Statement not initialized");
+               } else {
                        Z_ADDREF_P(param_ref);
                        zend_hash_index_update(&obj->intern->bound, param_no, (void *) &param_ref, sizeof(zval *), NULL);
                        zend_hash_sort(&obj->intern->bound, zend_qsort, compare_index, 0 TSRMLS_CC);
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Statement not initialized");
                }
        }
 }
@@ -3528,55 +3634,52 @@ ZEND_END_ARG_INFO();
 static PHP_METHOD(pqstm, exec) {
        zend_error_handling zeh;
        zval *zparams = NULL;
+       STATUS rv;
 
        zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, NULL, &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "|a/!", &zparams)) {
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "|a/!", &zparams);
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
                php_pqstm_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
-                       if (obj->intern->conn->intern) {
-                               int count = 0;
-                               char **params = NULL;
-                               HashTable zdtor;
-                               PGresult *res;
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Statement not initialized");
+               } else {
+                       int count = 0;
+                       char **params = NULL;
+                       HashTable zdtor;
+                       PGresult *res;
 
-                               ZEND_INIT_SYMTABLE(&zdtor);
+                       ZEND_INIT_SYMTABLE(&zdtor);
 
-                               if (zparams) {
-                                       count = php_pq_params_to_array(Z_ARRVAL_P(zparams), &params, &zdtor TSRMLS_CC);
-                               } else {
-                                       count = php_pq_params_to_array(&obj->intern->bound, &params, &zdtor TSRMLS_CC);
-                               }
+                       if (zparams) {
+                               count = php_pq_params_to_array(Z_ARRVAL_P(zparams), &params, &zdtor TSRMLS_CC);
+                       } else {
+                               count = php_pq_params_to_array(&obj->intern->bound, &params, &zdtor TSRMLS_CC);
+                       }
 
-                               res = PQexecPrepared(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, obj->intern->name, count, (const char *const*) params, NULL, NULL, 0);
+                       res = PQexecPrepared(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, obj->intern->name, count, (const char *const*) params, NULL, NULL, 0);
 
-                               if (params) {
-                                       efree(params);
-                               }
-                               zend_hash_destroy(&zdtor);
+                       if (params) {
+                               efree(params);
+                       }
+                       zend_hash_destroy(&zdtor);
 
-                               php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj->intern->conn TSRMLS_CC);
+                       if (!res) {
+                               zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "Failed to execute statement (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
+                       } else if (SUCCESS == php_pqres_success(res TSRMLS_CC)) {
+                               php_pqres_t *r = ecalloc(1, sizeof(*r));
 
-                               if (res) {
-                                       if (SUCCESS == php_pqres_success(res TSRMLS_CC)) {
-                                               php_pqres_t *r = ecalloc(1, sizeof(*r));
+                               r->res = res;
+                               ZEND_INIT_SYMTABLE(&r->bound);
+                               return_value->type = IS_OBJECT;
+                               return_value->value.obj = php_pqres_create_object_ex(php_pqres_class_entry, r, NULL TSRMLS_CC);
 
-                                               r->res = res;
-                                               ZEND_INIT_SYMTABLE(&r->bound);
-                                               return_value->type = IS_OBJECT;
-                                               return_value->value.obj = php_pqres_create_object_ex(php_pqres_class_entry, r, NULL TSRMLS_CC);
-                                       }
-                               } else {
-                                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Could not execute statement (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
-                               }
-                       } else {
-                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
+                               php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj->intern->conn TSRMLS_CC);
                        }
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Statement not initialized");
                }
        }
-       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 }
 
 ZEND_BEGIN_ARG_INFO_EX(ai_pqstm_exec_async, 0, 0, 0)
@@ -3587,131 +3690,112 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqstm, execAsync) {
        zend_error_handling zeh;
        zval *zparams = NULL;
        php_pq_callback_t resolver = {{0}};
+       STATUS rv;
 
        zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, NULL, &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "|a/!f", &zparams, &resolver.fci, &resolver.fcc)) {
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "|a/!f", &zparams, &resolver.fci, &resolver.fcc);
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
                php_pqstm_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
-                       if (obj->intern->conn->intern) {
-                               int count;
-                               char **params = NULL;
-                               HashTable zdtor;
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Statement not initialized");
+               } else {
+                       int count;
+                       char **params = NULL;
+                       HashTable zdtor;
 
-                               if (zparams) {
-                                       ZEND_INIT_SYMTABLE(&zdtor);
-                                       count = php_pq_params_to_array(Z_ARRVAL_P(zparams), &params, &zdtor TSRMLS_CC);
-                               }
+                       if (zparams) {
+                               ZEND_INIT_SYMTABLE(&zdtor);
+                               count = php_pq_params_to_array(Z_ARRVAL_P(zparams), &params, &zdtor TSRMLS_CC);
+                       }
 
+                       if (!PQsendQueryPrepared(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, obj->intern->name, count, (const char *const*) params, NULL, NULL, 0)) {
+                               zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
+                       } else if (obj->intern->conn->intern->unbuffered && !PQsetSingleRowMode(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn)) {
+                               zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "Failed to enable unbuffered mode (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
+                       } else {
                                php_pq_callback_dtor(&obj->intern->conn->intern->onevent);
                                if (resolver.fci.size > 0) {
                                        obj->intern->conn->intern->onevent = resolver;
-                                       php_pq_callback_addref(&obj->intern->conn->intern->onevent);
-                               }
-
-                               obj->intern->conn->intern->poller = PQconsumeInput;
-
-                               if (PQsendQueryPrepared(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, obj->intern->name, count, (const char *const*) params, NULL, NULL, 0)) {
-                                       if (obj->intern->conn->intern->unbuffered) {
-                                               if (!PQsetSingleRowMode(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn)) {
-                                                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_NOTICE, "Could not enable unbuffered mode (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
-                                               }
-                                       }
-                                       RETVAL_TRUE;
-                               } else {
-                                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Could not execute statement (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
-                                       RETVAL_FALSE;
-                               }
-
-                               if (params) {
-                                       efree(params);
-                               }
-                               if (zparams) {
-                                       zend_hash_destroy(&zdtor);
+                                       php_pq_callback_addref(&obj->intern->conn->intern->onevent);
                                }
+                               obj->intern->conn->intern->poller = PQconsumeInput;
+                       }
 
-                               php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj->intern->conn TSRMLS_CC);
-
-                       } else {
-                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
-                               RETVAL_FALSE;
+                       if (params) {
+                               efree(params);
                        }
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Statement not initialized");
-                       RETVAL_FALSE;
+                       if (zparams) {
+                               zend_hash_destroy(&zdtor);
+                       }
+
+                       php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj->intern->conn TSRMLS_CC);
                }
        }
-       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 }
 
 ZEND_BEGIN_ARG_INFO_EX(ai_pqstm_desc, 0, 0, 0)
 ZEND_END_ARG_INFO();
 static PHP_METHOD(pqstm, desc) {
        zend_error_handling zeh;
+       STATUS rv;
 
        zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, NULL, &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters_none()) {
-               php_pqstm_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters_none();
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
-                       if (obj->intern->conn->intern) {
-                               PGresult *res = PQdescribePrepared(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, obj->intern->name);
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
+               php_pqstm_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-                               php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj->intern->conn TSRMLS_CC);
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Statement not initialized");
+               } else {
+                       PGresult *res = PQdescribePrepared(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, obj->intern->name);
 
-                               if (res) {
-                                       if (SUCCESS == php_pqres_success(res TSRMLS_CC)) {
-                                               int p, params;
+                       if (!res) {
+                               zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "Failed to describe statement (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
+                       } else {
+                               if (SUCCESS == php_pqres_success(res TSRMLS_CC)) {
+                                       int p, params;
 
-                                               array_init(return_value);
-                                               for (p = 0, params = PQnparams(res); p < params; ++p) {
-                                                       add_next_index_long(return_value, PQparamtype(res, p));
-                                               }
+                                       array_init(return_value);
+                                       for (p = 0, params = PQnparams(res); p < params; ++p) {
+                                               add_next_index_long(return_value, PQparamtype(res, p));
                                        }
-                               } else {
-                                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Could not describe statement (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
                                }
-                       } else {
-                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
+                               PHP_PQclear(res);
+                               php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj->intern->conn TSRMLS_CC);
                        }
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Statement not initialized");
                }
        }
-       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 }
 
 ZEND_BEGIN_ARG_INFO_EX(ai_pqstm_desc_async, 0, 0, 0)
 ZEND_END_ARG_INFO();
 static PHP_METHOD(pqstm, descAsync) {
        zend_error_handling zeh;
+       STATUS rv;
 
        zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, NULL, &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters_none()) {
-               php_pqstm_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters_none();
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
+               php_pqstm_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Statement not initialized");
+               } else if (!PQsendDescribePrepared(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, obj->intern->name)) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "Failed to describe statement: %s", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
+               } else {
                        obj->intern->conn->intern->poller = PQconsumeInput;
-
-                       if (PQsendDescribePrepared(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, obj->intern->name)) {
-                               RETVAL_TRUE;
-                       } else {
-                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Could not describe statement: %s", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
-                               RETVAL_FALSE;
-                       }
-
                        php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj->intern->conn TSRMLS_CC);
-
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Statement not initialized");
-                       RETVAL_FALSE;
                }
        }
-       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 }
 
-
 static zend_function_entry php_pqstm_methods[] = {
        PHP_ME(pqstm, __construct, ai_pqstm_construct, ZEND_ACC_PUBLIC|ZEND_ACC_CTOR)
        PHP_ME(pqstm, bind, ai_pqstm_bind, ZEND_ACC_PUBLIC)
@@ -3734,14 +3818,18 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqtxn, __construct) {
        zval *zconn;
        long isolation = PHP_PQTXN_READ_COMMITTED;
        zend_bool async = 0, readonly = 0, deferrable = 0;
+       STATUS rv;
 
        zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, NULL, &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "O|blbb", &zconn, php_pqconn_class_entry, &async, &isolation, &readonly, &deferrable)) {
-               STATUS rv;
-               php_pqtxn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "O|blbb", &zconn, php_pqconn_class_entry, &async, &isolation, &readonly, &deferrable);
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
                php_pqconn_object_t *conn_obj = zend_object_store_get_object(zconn TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (conn_obj->intern) {
+               if (!conn_obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
+               } else {
                        if (async) {
                                rv = php_pqconn_start_transaction_async(zconn, conn_obj, isolation, readonly, deferrable TSRMLS_CC);
                        } else {
@@ -3749,277 +3837,342 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqtxn, __construct) {
                        }
 
                        if (SUCCESS == rv) {
+                               php_pqtxn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
+
                                obj->intern = ecalloc(1, sizeof(*obj->intern));
 
                                php_pq_object_addref(conn_obj TSRMLS_CC);
                                obj->intern->conn = conn_obj;
+                               obj->intern->open = 1;
                                obj->intern->isolation = isolation;
                                obj->intern->readonly = readonly;
                                obj->intern->deferrable = deferrable;
                        }
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
                }
        }
-       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 }
 
 ZEND_BEGIN_ARG_INFO_EX(ai_pqtxn_savepoint, 0, 0, 0)
 ZEND_END_ARG_INFO();
 static PHP_METHOD(pqtxn, savepoint) {
        zend_error_handling zeh;
+       STATUS rv;
 
        zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, NULL, &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters_none()) {
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters_none();
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
                php_pqtxn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
-                       char *cmd;
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Transaction not initialized");
+               } else if (!obj->intern->open) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Transaction already closed");
+               } else {
                        PGresult *res;
+                       smart_str cmd = {0};
 
-                       spprintf(&cmd, 0, "SAVEPOINT \"%u\"", ++obj->intern->savepoint);
-                       res = PQexec(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, cmd);
+                       smart_str_appends(&cmd, "SAVEPOINT \"");
+                       smart_str_append_unsigned(&cmd, ++obj->intern->savepoint);
+                       smart_str_appends(&cmd, "\"");
+                       smart_str_0(&cmd);
 
-                       if (res) {
+                       res = PQexec(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, cmd.c);
+
+                       if (!res) {
+                               zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "Failed to create %s (%s)", cmd.c, PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
+                       } else {
                                php_pqres_success(res TSRMLS_CC);
                                PHP_PQclear(res);
-                       } else {
-                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Failed to create %s (%s)", cmd, PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
                        }
 
-                       efree(cmd);
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Transaction not initialized");
+                       smart_str_free(&cmd);
                }
        }
-       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 }
 
 ZEND_BEGIN_ARG_INFO_EX(ai_pqtxn_savepoint_async, 0, 0, 0)
 ZEND_END_ARG_INFO();
 static PHP_METHOD(pqtxn, savepointAsync) {
        zend_error_handling zeh;
+       STATUS rv;
 
        zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, NULL, &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters_none()) {
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters_none();
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
                php_pqtxn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
-                       char *cmd;
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Transaction not initialized");
+               } else if (!obj->intern->open) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Transaction already closed");
+               } else {
+                       smart_str cmd = {0};
 
-                       spprintf(&cmd, 0, "SAVEPOINT \"%u\"", ++obj->intern->savepoint);
-                       if (!PQsendQuery(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, cmd)) {
-                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Failed to create %s (%s)", cmd, PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
+                       smart_str_appends(&cmd, "SAVEPOINT \"");
+                       smart_str_append_unsigned(&cmd, ++obj->intern->savepoint);
+                       smart_str_appends(&cmd, "\"");
+                       smart_str_0(&cmd);
+
+                       if (!PQsendQuery(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, cmd.c)) {
+                               zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "Failed to create %s (%s)", cmd.c, PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
                        }
 
-                       efree(cmd);
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Transaction not initialized");
+                       smart_str_free(&cmd);
                }
        }
-       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 }
 
 ZEND_BEGIN_ARG_INFO_EX(ai_pqtxn_commit, 0, 0, 0)
 ZEND_END_ARG_INFO();
 static PHP_METHOD(pqtxn, commit) {
        zend_error_handling zeh;
+       STATUS rv;
 
        zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, NULL, &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters_none()) {
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters_none();
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
                php_pqtxn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Transacation not initialized");
+               } else if (!obj->intern->open) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Transacation already closed");
+               } else {
                        PGresult *res;
+                       smart_str cmd = {0};
 
-                       if (obj->intern->savepoint) {
-                               char *cmd;
-
-                               spprintf(&cmd, 0, "RELEASE SAVEPOINT \"%u\"", obj->intern->savepoint--);
-                               res = PQexec(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, cmd);
+                       if (!obj->intern->savepoint) {
+                               res = PQexec(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, "COMMIT");
+                       } else {
+                               smart_str_appends(&cmd, "RELEASE SAVEPOINT \"");
+                               smart_str_append_unsigned(&cmd, obj->intern->savepoint--);
+                               smart_str_appends(&cmd, "\"");
+                               smart_str_0(&cmd);
 
-                               if (res) {
-                                       php_pqres_success(res TSRMLS_CC);
-                                       PHP_PQclear(res);
-                               } else {
-                                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Failed to %s (%s)", cmd, PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
-                               }
+                               res = PQexec(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, cmd.c);
+                       }
 
-                               efree(cmd);
+                       if (!res) {
+                               zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "Failed to %s (%s)", cmd.c ? cmd.c : "commit transaction", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
                        } else {
-                               res = PQexec(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, "COMMIT");
-
-                               if (res) {
-                                       php_pqres_success(res TSRMLS_CC);
-                                       PHP_PQclear(res);
-                               } else {
-                                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Failed to commit transaction (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
+                               if (SUCCESS == php_pqres_success(res TSRMLS_CC)) {
+                                       if (!cmd.c) {
+                                               obj->intern->open = 0;
+                                       }
                                }
+                               PHP_PQclear(res);
                        }
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Transaction not initialized");
+
+                       smart_str_free(&cmd);
+                       php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj->intern->conn TSRMLS_CC);
                }
        }
-       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 }
 
 ZEND_BEGIN_ARG_INFO_EX(ai_pqtxn_commit_async, 0, 0, 0)
 ZEND_END_ARG_INFO();
 static PHP_METHOD(pqtxn, commitAsync) {
        zend_error_handling zeh;
+       STATUS rv;
 
        zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, NULL, &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters_none()) {
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters_none();
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
                php_pqtxn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
-                       obj->intern->conn->intern->poller = PQconsumeInput;
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Transaction not initialized");
+               } else if (!obj->intern->open) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Transaction already closed");
+               } else {
+                       int rc;
+                       smart_str cmd = {0};
 
-                       if (obj->intern->savepoint) {
-                               char *cmd;
+                       if (!obj->intern->savepoint) {
+                               rc = PQsendQuery(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, "COMMIT");
+                       } else {
+                               smart_str_appends(&cmd, "RELEASE SAVEPOINT \"");
+                               smart_str_append_unsigned(&cmd, obj->intern->savepoint--);
+                               smart_str_appends(&cmd, "\"");
+                               smart_str_0(&cmd);
 
-                               spprintf(&cmd, 0, "RELEASE SAVEPOINT \"%u\"", obj->intern->savepoint--);
-                               if (!PQsendQuery(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, cmd)) {
-                                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Failed to %s (%s)", cmd, PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
-                               }
+                               rc = PQsendQuery(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, cmd.c);
+                       }
 
-                               efree(cmd);
+                       if (!rc) {
+                               zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "Failed to %s (%s)", cmd.c ? cmd.c : "commmit transaction", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
                        } else {
-                               if (!PQsendQuery(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, "COMMIT")) {
-                                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Failed to commit transaction (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
+                               if (!cmd.c) {
+                                       obj->intern->open = 0;
                                }
+                               obj->intern->conn->intern->poller = PQconsumeInput;
+                               php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj->intern->conn TSRMLS_CC);
                        }
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Transaction not initialized");
+
+                       smart_str_free(&cmd);
                }
        }
-       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 }
 
 ZEND_BEGIN_ARG_INFO_EX(ai_pqtxn_rollback, 0, 0, 0)
 ZEND_END_ARG_INFO();
 static PHP_METHOD(pqtxn, rollback) {
        zend_error_handling zeh;
+       STATUS rv;
 
        zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, NULL, &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters_none()) {
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters_none();
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
                php_pqtxn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Transaction not initialized");
+               } else if (!obj->intern->open) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Transaction already closed");
+               } else {
                        PGresult *res;
+                       smart_str cmd = {0};
 
-                       if (obj->intern->savepoint) {
-                               char *cmd;
-
-                               spprintf(&cmd, 0, "ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT \"%u\"", obj->intern->savepoint--);
-                               res = PQexec(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, cmd);
+                       if (!obj->intern->savepoint) {
+                               res = PQexec(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, "ROLLBACK");
+                       } else {
+                               smart_str_appends(&cmd, "ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT \"");
+                               smart_str_append_unsigned(&cmd, obj->intern->savepoint--);
+                               smart_str_appends(&cmd, "\"");
+                               smart_str_0(&cmd);
 
-                               if (res) {
-                                       php_pqres_success(res TSRMLS_CC);
-                                       PHP_PQclear(res);
-                               } else {
-                                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Failed to %s (%s)", cmd, PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
-                               }
+                               res = PQexec(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, cmd.c);
+                       }
 
-                               efree(cmd);
+                       if (!res) {
+                               zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "Failed to %s (%s)", cmd.c ? cmd.c : "rollback transaction", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
                        } else {
-                               res = PQexec(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, "ROLLBACK");
-
-                               if (res) {
-                                       php_pqres_success(res TSRMLS_CC);
-                                       PHP_PQclear(res);
-                               } else {
-                                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Failed to rollback transaction (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
+                               if (SUCCESS == php_pqres_success(res TSRMLS_CC)) {
+                                       if (!cmd.c) {
+                                               obj->intern->open = 0;
+                                       }
                                }
+                               PHP_PQclear(res);
                        }
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Transaction not initialized");
+
+                       smart_str_free(&cmd);
+                       php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj->intern->conn TSRMLS_CC);
                }
        }
-       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 }
 
 ZEND_BEGIN_ARG_INFO_EX(ai_pqtxn_rollback_async, 0, 0, 0)
 ZEND_END_ARG_INFO();
 static PHP_METHOD(pqtxn, rollbackAsync) {
        zend_error_handling zeh;
+       STATUS rv;
 
        zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, NULL, &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters_none()) {
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters_none();
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
                php_pqtxn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
-                       obj->intern->conn->intern->poller = PQconsumeInput;
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Transaction not initialized");
+               } else if (!obj->intern->open) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Transaction already closed");
+               } else {
+                       int rc;
+                       smart_str cmd = {0};
 
-                       if (obj->intern->savepoint) {
-                               char *cmd;
+                       if (!obj->intern->savepoint) {
+                               rc = PQsendQuery(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, "ROLLBACK");
+                       } else {
+                               smart_str_appends(&cmd, "ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT \"");
+                               smart_str_append_unsigned(&cmd, obj->intern->savepoint--);
+                               smart_str_appends(&cmd, "\"");
+                               smart_str_0(&cmd);
 
-                               spprintf(&cmd, 0, "ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT \"%u\"", obj->intern->savepoint--);
-                               if (!PQsendQuery(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, cmd)) {
-                                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Failed to %s (%s)", cmd, PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
-                               }
+                               rc = PQsendQuery(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, cmd.c);
+                       }
 
-                               efree(cmd);
+                       if (!rc) {
+                               zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "Failed to %s (%s)", cmd.c ? cmd.c : "rollback transaction", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
                        } else {
-                               if (!PQsendQuery(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, "ROLLBACK")) {
-                                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Could not rollback transaction (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
+                               if (!cmd.c) {
+                                       obj->intern->open = 0;
                                }
+                               obj->intern->conn->intern->poller = PQconsumeInput;
                        }
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Transaction not initialized");
+
+                       smart_str_free(&cmd);
+                       php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj->intern->conn TSRMLS_CC);
                }
        }
-       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 }
 
 ZEND_BEGIN_ARG_INFO_EX(ai_pqtxn_export_snapshot, 0, 0, 0)
 ZEND_END_ARG_INFO();
 static PHP_METHOD(pqtxn, exportSnapshot) {
        zend_error_handling zeh;
+       STATUS rv;
 
        zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, NULL, &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters_none()) {
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters_none();
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
                php_pqtxn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Transaction not initialized");
+               } else {
                        PGresult *res = PQexec(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, "SELECT pg_export_snapshot()");
 
-                       if (res) {
+                       if (!res) {
+                               zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "Failed to export transaction snapshot (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
+                       } else {
                                if (SUCCESS == php_pqres_success(res TSRMLS_CC)) {
                                        RETVAL_STRING(PQgetvalue(res, 0, 0), 1);
                                }
 
                                PHP_PQclear(res);
-                       } else {
-                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Failed to export transaction snapshot (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
                        }
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Transaction not initialized");
+
+                       php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj->intern->conn TSRMLS_CC);
                }
        }
-       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 }
 
 ZEND_BEGIN_ARG_INFO_EX(ai_pqtxn_export_snapshot_async, 0, 0, 0)
 ZEND_END_ARG_INFO();
 static PHP_METHOD(pqtxn, exportSnapshotAsync) {
        zend_error_handling zeh;
+       STATUS rv;
 
        zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, NULL, &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters_none()) {
-               php_pqtxn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters_none();
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
-                       obj->intern->conn->intern->poller = PQconsumeInput;
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
+               php_pqtxn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-                       if (!PQsendQuery(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, "SELECT pg_export_snapshot()")) {
-                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Failed to export transaction snapshot (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
-                       }
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Transaction not initialized");
+               } else if (!PQsendQuery(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, "SELECT pg_export_snapshot()")) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "Failed to export transaction snapshot (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
                } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Transaction not initialized");
+                       obj->intern->conn->intern->poller = PQconsumeInput;
+                       php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj->intern->conn TSRMLS_CC);
                }
        }
-       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 }
 
 ZEND_BEGIN_ARG_INFO_EX(ai_pqtxn_import_snapshot, 0, 0, 1)
@@ -4029,33 +4182,46 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqtxn, importSnapshot) {
        zend_error_handling zeh;
        char *snapshot_str;
        int snapshot_len;
+       STATUS rv;
 
        zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, NULL, &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "s", &snapshot_str, &snapshot_len)) {
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "s", &snapshot_str, &snapshot_len);
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
                php_pqtxn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
-                       if (obj->intern->isolation >= PHP_PQTXN_REPEATABLE_READ) {
-                               char *cmd, *sid = PQescapeLiteral(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, snapshot_str, snapshot_len);
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Transaction not initialized");
+               } else if (obj->intern->isolation < PHP_PQTXN_REPEATABLE_READ) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Transaction must have at least isolation level REPEATABLE READ to be able to import a snapshot");
+               } else {
+                       char *sid = PQescapeLiteral(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, snapshot_str, snapshot_len);
+
+                       if (!sid) {
+                               zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "Failed to quote snapshot identifier (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
+                       } else {
                                PGresult *res;
+                               smart_str cmd = {0};
 
-                               spprintf(&cmd, 0, "SET TRANSACTION SNAPSHOT %s", sid);
-                               res = PQexec(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, cmd);
+                               smart_str_appends(&cmd, "SET TRANSACTION SNAPSHOT ");
+                               smart_str_appends(&cmd, sid);
+                               smart_str_0(&cmd);
 
-                               if (res) {
+                               res = PQexec(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, cmd.c);
+
+                               if (!res) {
+                                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "Failed to import transaction snapshot (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
+                               } else {
                                        php_pqres_success(res TSRMLS_CC);
                                        PHP_PQclear(res);
-                               } else {
-                                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Failed to %s (%s)", cmd, PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
                                }
-                       } else {
-                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "A transaction must have at least isolation level REPEATABLE READ to be able to import a snapshot");
+
+                               smart_str_free(&cmd);
+                               php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj->intern->conn TSRMLS_CC);
                        }
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Transaction not initialized");
                }
        }
-       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 }
 
 ZEND_BEGIN_ARG_INFO_EX(ai_pqtxn_import_snapshot_async, 0, 0, 1)
@@ -4065,35 +4231,42 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqtxn, importSnapshotAsync) {
        zend_error_handling zeh;
        char *snapshot_str;
        int snapshot_len;
+       STATUS rv;
 
        zend_replace_error_handling(EH_THROW, NULL, &zeh TSRMLS_CC);
-       if (SUCCESS == zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "s", &snapshot_str, &snapshot_len)) {
+       rv = zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "s", &snapshot_str, &snapshot_len);
+       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
+
+       if (SUCCESS == rv) {
                php_pqtxn_object_t *obj = zend_object_store_get_object(getThis() TSRMLS_CC);
 
-               if (obj->intern) {
-                       if (obj->intern->isolation >= PHP_PQTXN_REPEATABLE_READ) {
-                               char *sid = PQescapeLiteral(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, snapshot_str, snapshot_len);
+               if (!obj->intern) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Transaction not initialized");
+               } else if (obj->intern->isolation < PHP_PQTXN_REPEATABLE_READ) {
+                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "pq\\Transaction must have at least isolation level REPEATABLE READ to be able to import a snapshot");
+               } else {
+                       char *sid = PQescapeLiteral(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, snapshot_str, snapshot_len);
 
-                               if (sid) {
-                                       char *cmd;
-                                       obj->intern->conn->intern->poller = PQconsumeInput;
+                       if (!sid) {
+                               zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "Failed to quote snapshot identifier (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
+                       } else {
+                               smart_str cmd = {0};
 
-                                       spprintf(&cmd, 0, "SET TRANSACTION SNAPSHOT %s", sid);
-                                       if (!PQsendQuery(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, cmd)) {
-                                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Failed to %s (%s)", cmd, PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
-                                       }
-                                       efree(cmd);
+                               smart_str_appends(&cmd, "SET TRANSACTION SNAPSHOT ");
+                               smart_str_appends(&cmd, sid);
+                               smart_str_0(&cmd);
+
+                               if (!PQsendQuery(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn, cmd.c)) {
+                                       zend_throw_exception_ex(exce(EX_RUNTIME), EX_RUNTIME TSRMLS_CC, "Failed to %s (%s)", cmd.c, PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
                                } else {
-                                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Failed to quote snapshot identifier (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(obj->intern->conn->intern->conn));
+                                       obj->intern->conn->intern->poller = PQconsumeInput;
                                }
-                       } else {
-                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "A transaction must have at least isolation level REPEATABLE READ to be able to import a snapshot");
+
+                               smart_str_free(&cmd);
+                               php_pqconn_notify_listeners(obj->intern->conn TSRMLS_CC);
                        }
-               } else {
-                       php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Transaction not initialized");
                }
        }
-       zend_restore_error_handling(&zeh TSRMLS_CC);
 }
 
 ZEND_BEGIN_ARG_INFO_EX(ai_pqtxn_open_lob, 0, 0, 1)
@@ -4248,7 +4421,7 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqcancel, __construct) {
                                php_pq_object_addref(conn_obj TSRMLS_CC);
                                obj->intern->conn = conn_obj;
                        } else {
-                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Could not acquire cancel (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(conn_obj->intern->conn));
+                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Failed to acquire cancel (%s)", PHP_PQerrorMessage(conn_obj->intern->conn));
                        }
                } else {
                        php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Connection not initialized");
@@ -4270,7 +4443,7 @@ static PHP_METHOD(pqcancel, cancel) {
                        char err[256];
 
                        if (!PQcancel(obj->intern->cancel, err, sizeof(err))) {
-                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Could not request cancellation: %s", err);
+                               php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "Failed to request cancellation: %s", err);
                        }
                } else {
                        php_error_docref(NULL TSRMLS_CC, E_WARNING, "pq\\Cancel not initialized");
@@ -4762,6 +4935,10 @@ static zend_function_entry php_pqcopy_methods[] = {
        {0}
 };
 
+static zend_function_entry php_pqexc_methods[] = {
+       {0}
+};
+
 /* {{{ PHP_MINIT_FUNCTION
  */
 static PHP_MINIT_FUNCTION(pq)
@@ -4769,6 +4946,30 @@ static PHP_MINIT_FUNCTION(pq)
        zend_class_entry ce = {0};
        php_pq_object_prophandler_t ph = {0};
 
+       INIT_NS_CLASS_ENTRY(ce, "pq", "Exception", php_pqexc_methods);
+       php_pqexc_interface_class_entry = zend_register_internal_interface(&ce TSRMLS_CC);
+
+       memset(&ce, 0, sizeof(ce));
+       INIT_NS_CLASS_ENTRY(ce, "pq\\Exception", "Exception", php_pqexc_methods);
+       php_pqexc_default_class_entry = zend_register_internal_class_ex(&ce, zend_exception_get_default(TSRMLS_C), "Exception" TSRMLS_CC);
+       zend_class_implements(php_pqexc_default_class_entry TSRMLS_CC, 1, php_pqexc_interface_class_entry);
+
+       memset(&ce, 0, sizeof(ce));
+       INIT_NS_CLASS_ENTRY(ce, "pq\\Exception", "InvalidArgument", php_pqexc_methods);
+       php_pqexc_invalid_argument_class_entry = zend_register_internal_class_ex(&ce, spl_ce_InvalidArgumentException, "InvalidArgumentException" TSRMLS_CC);
+       zend_class_implements(php_pqexc_invalid_argument_class_entry TSRMLS_CC, 1, php_pqexc_interface_class_entry);
+
+       memset(&ce, 0, sizeof(ce));
+       INIT_NS_CLASS_ENTRY(ce, "pq\\Exception", "Runtime", php_pqexc_methods);
+       php_pqexc_runtime_class_entry = zend_register_internal_class_ex(&ce, spl_ce_RuntimeException, "RuntimeException" TSRMLS_CC);
+       zend_class_implements(php_pqexc_runtime_class_entry TSRMLS_CC, 1, php_pqexc_interface_class_entry);
+
+       memset(&ce, 0, sizeof(ce));
+       INIT_NS_CLASS_ENTRY(ce, "pq\\Exception", "BadMethodCall", php_pqexc_methods);
+       php_pqexc_bad_methodcall_class_entry = zend_register_internal_class_ex(&ce, spl_ce_BadMethodCallException, "BadMethodCallException" TSRMLS_CC);
+       zend_class_implements(php_pqexc_bad_methodcall_class_entry TSRMLS_CC, 1, php_pqexc_interface_class_entry);
+
+       memset(&ce, 0, sizeof(ce));
        INIT_NS_CLASS_ENTRY(ce, "pq", "Connection", php_pqconn_methods);
        php_pqconn_class_entry = zend_register_internal_class_ex(&ce, NULL, NULL TSRMLS_CC);
        php_pqconn_class_entry->create_object = php_pqconn_create_object;
@@ -4904,6 +5105,10 @@ static PHP_MINIT_FUNCTION(pq)
        ph.read = php_pqres_object_read_status;
        zend_hash_add(&php_pqres_object_prophandlers, "status", sizeof("status"), (void *) &ph, sizeof(ph), NULL);
 
+       zend_declare_property_null(php_pqres_class_entry, ZEND_STRL("statusMessage"), ZEND_ACC_PUBLIC TSRMLS_CC);
+       ph.read = php_pqres_object_read_status_message;
+       zend_hash_add(&php_pqres_object_prophandlers, "statusMessage", sizeof("statusMessage"), (void *) &ph, sizeof(ph), NULL);
+
        zend_declare_property_null(php_pqres_class_entry, ZEND_STRL("errorMessage"), ZEND_ACC_PUBLIC TSRMLS_CC);
        ph.read = php_pqres_object_read_error_message;
        zend_hash_add(&php_pqres_object_prophandlers, "errorMessage", sizeof("errorMessage"), (void *) &ph, sizeof(ph), NULL);